Bearings & Calculating Angles
To be able to solve problems involving bearings and use bearing notation:
- Know what a three-figure bearing is.
- Accurately draw a point using three-figure bearing and distance data.
- Work out the bearing of one point from another.
In order to achieve the sub-two-hour marathon, in a challenge which many thought impossible, there could be no stone left unturned in the meticulous planning and preparation by the INEOS 1:59 Challenge team. One of the major decisions that needed to be made was about the course. What makes a good route and how do you adapt, measure and plot the best course?
On 12th October 2019 Eliud Kipchoge, with support from the INEOS 1:59 Performance team, broke the last great barrier in modern athletics, the two-hour marathon. In doing so he inspired others to believe that they can overcome their own personal barriers. He believes that #NoHumanIsLimited.
This series of 3 exciting STEM challenges for students covers key aspects of the challenge Eliud and his team faced; pacemakers, nutrition and course selection. Students will put themselves into the roles of the 1:59 team and will investigate what it takes to run a sub-two-hour marathon by carrying out hands-on practical work in physics, biology and maths.
All lessons are fully linked to the National Curriculum.
Nutrition and digestion
- content of a healthy human diet: carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, and why each is needed
- calculations of energy requirements in a healthy daily diet
- the consequences of imbalances in the diet, including obesity, starvation and deficiency diseases
Energy Calculation of fuel uses and costs in the domestic context
- comparing energy values of different foods (from labels) (kJ)
- comparing amounts of energy transferred (J, kJ, kW hour)
- forces as pushes or pulls, arising from the interaction between two objects
- using force arrows in diagrams, adding forces in one dimension, balanced and unbalanced forces
- forces: associated with deforming objects; stretching and squashing – springs; with rubbing and friction between surfaces, with pushing things out of the way; resistance to motion of air and water
Through the content across all three disciplines, pupils should be taught to:
- pay attention to objectivity and concern for accuracy, precision, repeatability and reproducibility
- understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review
- evaluate risks.
Experimental skills and investigations
- ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience
- make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding
- select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables, where appropriate
- use appropriate techniques, apparatus, and materials during fieldwork and laboratory work, paying attention to health and safety
- make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations; and evaluate the reliability of methods and suggest possible improvements
- apply sampling techniques. Analysis and evaluation
- apply mathematical concepts and calculate results
- present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs
- interpret observations and data, including identifying patterns and using observations, measurements and data to draw conclusions
- present reasoned explanations, including explaining data in relation to predictions and hypotheses
- evaluate data, showing awareness of potential sources of random and systematic error
- identify further questions arising from their results.
- use and derive simple equations and carry out appropriate calculations.
- undertake basic data analysis including simple statistical techniques.
- By investigating how friction, including air resistance, affects motion, I can suggest ways to improve efficiency in moving objects.
- By contributing to investigations of energy loss due to friction, I can suggest ways of improving the efficiency of moving systems.
- I can use appropriate methods to measure, calculate and display graphically the speed of an object, and show how these methods can be used in a selected application.
Body systems and cells
- By investigating some body systems and potential problems which they may develop, I can make informed decisions to help me to maintain my health and wellbeing.
- I have explored the structure and function of organs and organ systems and can relate this to the basic biological processes required to sustain life.
Angle, symmetry and transformation
- Having investigated navigation in the world, I can apply my understanding of bearings and scale to interpret maps and plans and create accurate plans, and scale drawings of routes and journeys.
- I can apply my understanding of scale when enlarging or reducing pictures and shapes, using different methods, including technology
- I can name angles and find their sizes using my knowledge of the properties of a range of 2D shapes and the angle properties associated with intersecting and parallel lines.
- how food is used by the body as fuel during respiration and why the components of a balanced diet are needed for good health
- the conservation of energy and ways in which energy can be stored
- the forces in devices and their relationship to work done and power